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PLANT TISSUES AND CELLS

Glossary

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Organization of The Plant
Plant Tissue Systems
Simple Tissues
Parenchyma
Collenchyma
Sclerenchyma
Glossary

Albuminous cell - parenchyma-like cell associated with sieve cells in the    
                                  phloem of gymnosperms and some ferns.
 
 
 
Bud - an undeveloped shoot, largely meristematic tissues, generally protected 
           by modified scale-leaves; also a swelling on a yeast cell that will become
           a new yeast cell when released.
 
 
 
Companion cell - cell associated with sieve-tube members.
 
 
 
 
Epidermal cells - the most abundant cell type in the epidermis; typically lack
                                chloroplasts.
 
 
 
Fiber - an elongated, tapering, thick-walled strengthening cell occuring in various
            parts of plant bodies; one of the cell types in sclerenchyma tissues.
 
 
 
Flower - floral leaves grouped together on a stem and adapted for sexual
                reproduction in the angiosperms.  
 
 
 
Fruit - a matured ovary; in some, seed plants and other parts of the flower may
            be included; also applied, as fruiting body, to reproductive structures of
            other groups of plants.
 
 
 
Guard cells - specialized epidermal cells found on young stems and leaves;
                         between each pair of guard cells is a small pore through which
                         gases enter or leaves; a pair of guard cells in addition to the
                         pore constitute a stoma.
 
 
 
Root system - all of the roots and branches initially derived from the radicle of
                           the embryo.
 
 
 
Shoot system - all stem, leaves, buds, flowers and fruits developed from the
                             shoot apical meristem.
 
 
 
Sieve cells - a long ans slender sieve element found in the phloem of
                       gymnosperms and some ferns, often associated with a
                       specialized parenchyma-like albuminous cell, with relatively
                       unspecialized sieve areas and with tapering end walls that lacks
                       sieve plates.
 
 
 
Sieve plate - wall area in a sieve-tube member containing a region of pores
                        through which pass strands connecting sieve-tube protoplast.
 
 
 
Sieve tube - a series of sieve-tube members forming a long, cellular tube
                       specialized for the conduction of food materials; found in flowering
                       plants.
 
 
 
Sieve-tube members - portion of a sieve tube composed of  a single
                                          protoplast and separated from other sieve-tube
                                          members by sieve plates.
 
 
 
Stem - the main body of the portion above-ground of tree, shrub, herb or other
             plant; the ascending axis, whether aboveground or belowground, of a
             plant, in contradistinction to the descending axis or root.
 
 
 
Subsidiary cell - type of epidermal cell in contact with guard cells on leaves.
 
 
 
Succulent - a plant having juicy or watery tissues.
 
 
 
Tracheid - an elongated, tapering xylem cell with lignified pitted walls, adapted
                    for conduction and support, and without open end walls.
 
 
 
Trichome - a short filament of one or more cells extending from the epidermis.
 
 
 
Vascular - referring to a plant tissues (xylem and phloem) or region consisting
                    of or giving rise to conducting tissues; for example, vascular bundle,
                    vascular cambium, phloem ray.
 
 
 
Vessel member - a conducting cell in the primary and secondary xylem;
                                typically have a lignified secondary cell wall and open end
                                walls, a perforation plate.
 
 
 
Xeophyte - a plant resistent to drought or that lives in dry places.

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